The essence of IoT is networking that students of information technology college should be followed. In other words, technologies will use in IoT with a set protocol that they will use for communications. In Communication, a protocol is basically a set of rules and guidelines for transferring data. Rules defined for every step and process during communication between two or more computers. Networks must follow certain rules to successfully transmit data.
While working on a project, there are some requirements that must be completed like speed, range, utility, power, discoverability, etc. and a protocol can easily help them find a way to understand and solve the problem. Some of them includes the following:
There are some most popular IoT protocols that the engineers of Top Engineering Colleges in India should know. These are primarily wireless network IoT protocols.
Bluetooth is a wireless technology standard for exchanging data over some short distances ranges from fixed and mobile devices, and building personal area networks (PANs). It invented by Dutch electrical engineer, that is, Jaap Haartsen who is working for telecom vendor Ericsson in 1994. It was originally developed as a wireless alternative to RS-232 data cables.
ZigBee is an IEEE 802.15.4-based specification for a suite of high-level communication protocols that are used by the students of best engineering colleges to create personal area networks. It includes small, low-power digital radios like medical device data collection, home automation, and other low-power low-bandwidth needs, designed for small scale projects which need wireless connection. Hence, ZigBee is a low data rate, low-power, and close proximity wireless ad hoc network.
Z-Wave - a wireless communications protocol used by the students of Top Information Technology Colleges primarily for home automation. It is a mesh network using low-energy radio waves to communicate from appliance to appliance which allows wireless control of residential appliances and other devices like lighting control, thermostats, security systems, windows, locks, swimming pools and garage door openers.
A very new IP-based IPv6 networking protocols aims at the home automation environment is Thread. It is based on 6LowPAN and also like it; it is not an IoT protocols like Bluetooth or ZigBee. However, it primarily designed as a complement to Wi-Fi and recognises that Wi-Fi is good for many consumer devices with limitations for use in a home automation setup.
Wi-Fi is a technology for wireless local area networking with devices according to the IEEE 802.11 standards. The Wi-Fi is a trademark of the Wi-Fi Alliance which prohibits the use of the term Wi-Fi Certified to products that can successfully complete interoperability certification testing.
Devices that can use Wi-Fi technology mainly include personal computers, digital cameras, video-game consoles, smartphones and tablets, smart TVs, digital audio players and modern printers. Wi-Fi compatible devices can connect to the Internet through WLAN and a wireless access point. Such an access point has a range of about 20 meters indoors with a greater range outdoors. Hotspot coverage can be as small as a single room with walls that restricts radio waves, or as large as many square kilometres that is achieved by using multiple overlapping access points.
LoRaWAN a media access control protocol mainly used for wide area networks. It designed to enable students of private engineering colleges in India to communicate through low-powered devices with Internet-connected applications over long-range wireless connections. LoRaWAN can be mapped to the second and third layer of the OSI model. It also implemented on top of LoRa or FSK modulation in industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) radio bands.
Near-field communication is a set of communication protocols that enable students of best engineering colleges in India two electronic devices. One of them is usually a portable device like a smartphone, to establish communication by bringing them within 4cm (1.6 in) of each other.
These devices used in contactless payment systems like to those used in credit cards and electronic ticket smartcards and enable mobile payment to replace/supplement these systems. Sometimes, this referred to as NFC/CTLS (Contactless) or CTLS NFC. NFC used for social networking, for sharing contacts, videos, photos,or files. NFC-enabled devices can act as electronic identity both documents and keycards. NFC also offers a low-speed connection with simple setup that can be used by the students of top btech colleges in India to bootstrap more capable wireless connections.
IoT application that requires operation over longer distances can take benefits of GSM/3G/4G cellular communication capabilities. While cellular is clearly capable of sending high quantities of data. Especially for 4G with the expense and also power consumption will be too high for many applications. Also, it can ideal for sensor-based low-bandwidth-data projects that will send very low amounts of data over the Internet. A key product in this area is the SparqEE range of products including the original tiny CELLv1.0 low-cost development board and a series of shield connecting boards for use with the Raspberry Pi and Arduino platforms.
This unique approach in the world of wireless connectivity; where there is no signalling overhead, a compact and optimized protocol; and where objects not attached to the network. So, Sigfox offers a software-based communications solution to the students of top engineering colleges in India. Where all the network and computing complexity managed in the Cloud, rather than on the devices. All that together, it drastically reduces energy consumption and costs of connected devices.
SigFox wireless technology is based on LTN (Low Throughput Network). A wide area network-based technology which supports low data rate communication over larger distances. However, it mainly used for M2M and IoT applications which transmits only few bytes per day.