India aims to be the fourth country to land on the lunar surface among the USA, Russia, and China. This mission is known as Chandrayaan 2. It has three important components including the Orbiter, the Lander Vikram and Rover Pragyan. Both the Lander and the Orbiter will be tucked into the GSLV Mk-III rocket. In other words, it will necessarily launch them at the moon precisely and scientifically.
After the rocket reaches space, the uppermost portion of the rocket separates and releases its payload immediately. In other words, the orbiter-lander module will conduct a series of five complex maneuvers around the Earth. It helps in building up momentum and slingshot closer to the moon. However, the capturing of the duo by the moon’s orbit allows the lander to detach itself from the orbiter. It further makes a soft landing on the moon and will then release the rover onto the lunar surface. While scanning and mapping the surface, the orbiter will continue to orbit the Moon for a year.
The orbiter has eight instruments fitted into it. The top seven belongs to India. NASA has one payload on board known as the Laser Retro-reflector Array (LRA). It will last for much longer than the Chandrayaan 2 mission.
Two instruments are similar to those on Chandrayaan 1. It includes the Terrain Mapping Camera-2 (TMC-2) and the Miniature Synthetic Aperture Radar (Mini SAR). The Mini SAR instrument on Chandrayaan 1 develops by NASA and the dual-frequency SAR instrument mainly develops by India. However, both of them can simultaneously map the surface in both L- & S-band frequencies with full polarimetric capabilities (the ability to study the optical activity by inorganic and organic compounds). The TMC-2 will map the lunar surface and help to prepare 3D maps of it.
The Dual Frequency Radio Science (DFRS) will study the density of the electrons in the moon’s ionosphere. It is the uppermost part of the atmosphere which is ionized by radiation. In addition, an imaging IR Spectrometer will try to identify minerals and indicators of hydroxyl and water molecules.
The orbiter has a high-resolution camera (OHRC) which ensures a safe touchdown by the lander on the lunar surface. It takes 3D images of the landing site. However, these images serve a dual purpose which can use to study the surface as well.
The Solar X-ray Monitor (XSM) measures the intensity of the solar rays and the outer most part of the atmosphere or its corona. CLASS or the Chandrayaan 2 Large Area Soft X-ray Spectrometer measures the light absorbed by the Moon. However, it will check for different metals that are present in its spectrum.
In conclusion, it states that India is also one of the powerful countries and can compete with other countries in terms of science and technology. Students of Arya College of Engineering and IT must take inspiration and keeps on learning and experimenting with things for achieving success.